ENGLISH WORDS FROM ARABIC

admiral - ami:r-al-bahr 'ruler of the seas' (and other similar expressions) - amara command
adobe - al-toba 'the brick'
albacore - al-bukr 'the young camel'
alchemy - al-ki:mi:a: - from Greek
alcohol - al-koh''l 'the kohl'
alcove - al-qobbah 'vault' - qubba vault
alembic - al-ambi:q 'the still' - from Greek
alfalfa - alfas,fas,ah 'fodder'
algebra - al-jebr 'reintegration' - jabara reunite
Algol - al-ghu:l 'the ghoul'
algorithm - al-Khowarazmi 'the (man) of Khiva'
alkali - al-qaliy 'calx' - qalay fry, roast
Allah - `allah, from contraction of al-ilah 'the god'
Almagest - al-majisti - from Greek
almanac - (Andalucian Arabic) al-mana:kh, of uncertain origin
amber - `anbar 'ambergris'
antimony - al-íthmid 'antimony trisulphide' - perhaps from Greek
apricot - al-burquq - from Greek
Arab - `arab
arsenal - dar as,s,ina`ah 'house of making', i.e. 'factory' - s,ana`a make
artichoke - al-kharshu:f
assagai - az-zaghayah - from Berber
assassin - h'ashsha:shi:n 'hashish eaters', from the Isma`ili sectarians
attar - `itr 'aroma'
ayatollah - 'ayatu-llah 'miraculous sign of God'
azimuth - as-sumut 'the paths'; see also zenith
azure - al-lazward 'lapis lazuli' - from Persian

barbican - (possibly) bâb-al-baqara 'gate with holes'
berdache - (possibly) bardaj 'slave'
Betelgeuse - bi:t al-jauza:' 'shoulder of the Giant'
bezoar - bazahr - from Persian
bint - bint 'daughter
bled - balad 'vast open country'
borax - bu:raq - from Persian
burka - burqa`
burnouse - burnus

caliber - qali:b 'mold, last' -
calico - Qaliqu:t 'Calicut', city in India
caliph - khali:fah 'successor' - khalafa 'succeed'
camise - qami:s 'shirt' - from Latin
camphor - ka:fu:r - from Malay
candy - short for 'sugar candy', from sugar + qandi 'candied', from qand 'cane sugar' - from a Dravidian language
carat - qi:ra:t 'small weight' - from Greek
caraway - alkarawya: - probably from Greek
carafe - gharra:f - gharafa 'dip'
carmine - qirmazi: 'crimson'
carob - kharrubah
cassock - kaza:ghand 'padded jacket' - from Persian
check - sha:h 'king' - from Persian
checkmate - sha:h ma:t 'the king is dead'
chemistry - see alchemy
chess - from Old French eschecs, plural of check
cipher - s,ifr 'empty'
civet - zaba:d
coffee - qahwah
Copt - quft - from Greek
cork - qu:rq
cotton - qutn
couscous - kuskus - kaskasa pound, bruise
crimson - qirmazi:, related to the qirmiz, the insect that provided the dye

Deneb - danab al-jaja:ja 'tail of the hen'
dhow - da:w
dinar - di:na:r - from Greek
dirham - dirham - from Greek
dragoman - tarjuma:n - tarjama interpret
drub - daraba 'beat'
dura mater - Latin calque on umm al-ghali:dah 'hard mother'

efreet - 'ifri:t 'monster'
El Cid - al-Sayyid 'the lord'
elixir - al-iksi:r 'philosopher's stone' - from Greek
emir - ami:r - amara command

fakir - faqi:r 'poor man' - faqura be poor
fardel - fardah 'load'
Farsi - Fa:rs 'Pars', a province of Iran - from Persian
fatwa - fetwa - fata: instruct by a legal decision
fedayeen - fida:'iyi:n 'commandos' - fida:` redemption
felafel - fala:fil
fellah - fella:h' 'husbandman' - falah'a till
felucca - fulk 'ship' - falaka be round
Fomalhaut - fum u'l-haut 'mouth of the fish'

garble - gharbala 'sift' - perhaps from Latin
gazelle - ghaza:l
genie - jinni: 'spirit'
gerbil - yarbu:`
ghoul - ghu:l 'demon' - gha:la take suddenly
giraffe - zara:fa


hadith - h'adi:t 'tradition'
haj - h'ajj 'pilgrimage' - h'ajja go on a pilgrimage
halal - h'ala:l 'lawful'
halvah - h'alwa:
harem - h'aram 'prohibited, set apart' - h'arama prohibit
hashish - h'ashi:sh 'dried herbs, hemp'
hazard - yásara 'play at dice'
hegira - hijrah 'departure' - hajara separate, go
henna - h'enna:`
Hezbollah - H'izbulla:h 'party of God'
hookah - h'uqqah 'water bottle (through which smoke is drawn)'
houri - h'u:r al-`ayu:n 'with eyes like gazelles' - h'awura have eyes like gazelles

imam - ima:m 'leader' - amma precede
Islam - isla:m 'submission' - aslama submit oneself

jar - jarrah 'large earthen vase'
jasmine - ya:smi:n - from Persian
jinn - jinn 'spirits', plural of genie
julep - jula:b 'rose water' - from Persian

Kaaba - ka`bah 'square house'
kabob - kaba:b - from Persian
kaffir - ka:fir 'infidel' - kafara conceal, deny
keffiyeh - kaffi:yah
khamsin - khamsi:n 'fifty (days)'
kismet - qisma 'portion, lot' - qasama divide
kohl - koh''l 'kohl' - kah'ala stain, paint
Koran - qura:n 'recitation' - qara`a read

lilac - li:la:k - from Persian
lemon - laymu:n - from Persian
lime - li:mah 'citrus fruit'
loofah - lu:fah a plant whose pods were used as sponges
lute - al-`u:d

macramé - miqramah 'striped cloth'
magazine - makha:zin 'storehouses' - khazana store
Mahdi - mahdi:y 'one who is guided aright' - hada: lead
majlis - majlis 'council'
mancala - mank.ala - nak.ala move
marzipan - mawthaba:n 'coin featuring a seated figure'
mask - perhaps maskhara 'buffoon' - sakhira ridicule
mattress - matrah 'place where something is thrown, mat, cushion' - tarah'a throw
minaret - mana:rah - na:r fire
mohair - mukhayyar 'choice (goats'-hair cloth)' - khayyara select
monsoon - mausim 'season' - wasama mark
mosque - masgid - sagada worship
Mozarabic - musta`rib 'would-be Arab'
muezzin - mu'adhdhin 'criers' - adhana proclaim
mufti - mufti: 'one who gives a fatwa'
mujahedeen - muja:hidi:n 'figher in a jihad'
mullah - mawla: 'master'
mummy - mu:miya: 'embalmed body' - mu:m '(embalming) wax'
Muslim - muslim 'submitter' - aslama submit oneself
muslin - Maus,il 'Mosul'

nadir - nadi:r as-samt 'opposite the zenith'
natron - natru:n - from Greek
nizam - nidam 'government'

orange - na:ranj - from Sanskrit
ottoman - `uthma:n, a proper name

pia mater - Latin calque on umm raqi:qah 'tender mother'
popinjay - babagha:
Primum Mobile - Latin calque on al-muh' arrik al-awwal 'the first mover'

racket - râh'et 'palm of the hand' Ramadan - Ramada:n meaning perhaps 'the hot month' - ramata be heated
realgar - rehj al-gha:r 'powder of the cave'
ream - rizmah 'bundle'
rebec - reba:b
Rigel - rijl 'foot (of Orion)'
roc - rukh
rook - rukh - from Persian
Rubaiyyat - ruba:`i:yah 'quatrain'

safari - safari:y 'journey' - safara travel
saffron - za`fara:n
Sahara - çah'ra: 'desert'
sahib - ça:h'ib 'friend'
salaam - as-sala:m `alaikum 'peace be on you'
saluki - salu:k.i: 'from Saluk'
Saracen - sharqi:yi:n 'easterners' - sha:raqa rise
sash - sha:sh 'muslin'
satin - probably zaytu:ni: 'of Zaytu:n' (a city in China)
scarlet - siqilla:t '(cloth) adorned with images' - from Latin
sequin - sikkah 'die for coinmaking'
Sharia - shari:`a
sheikh - shaikh 'old man' - sha:kha grow old
sherbet - sharbah - shariba drink
Shiite - shiya`i:y, from shiya:` 'following, sect' - sha`a follow
shrub [drink] - shurb 'a drink' - shariba drink
sine - Latin sinus, mistranslation of jayb 'chord of an arc, sine', through confusion with jayb 'fold of a garment'
sirocco - sharq 'east (wind)' - sha:raqa rise
sofa - s,uffah 'raised dais with cushions'
souk - su:k. 'marketplace'
spinach - isfa:na:kh
Sufi - çu:fi: 'man of wool'
sugar - sukkar - from Sanskrit
sultan - sulta:n 'sovereign'
sumac - summa:q
Sunni - sunni: 'lawful', from sunna:h 'rule, course'
sura - su:rah
syrup - shara:b 'beverage' - shariba drink

tabbouleh - tabbu:la
tabby - `atta:biy, a neighborhood in Baghdad where taffeta was made
tahini - - tah'ana crush
Taliban - talib 'student' - talaba study
talisman - tilsam - from Greek
tamarind - tamr-hindi: 'date of India'
tambourine - a small tambour, from tanbu:r - from Persian
tandoori - tannu:r 'oven'
tarboosh - tarbu:sh
tare [weight] - tarh'ah 'rejected' - tarah'a reject
tariff - ta`ri:f 'notification' - `arafa notify
tarragon - tarkhu:n - possibly from Greek
tell [mound] - tall 'hillock'

ujamaa - jama:` 'community'
ulema - `ulima: 'the learned ones' - `alama know

Vega - al-nasr al-wa:qi` 'the falling vulture'
vizier - wazi:r 'porter, public servant' - wazara carry

wadi - wa:di:
Waqf - waqf 'religious foundation'
wisdom tooth - from a Latin calque on adra:su 'l h'ikmi - calqued from Greek

zenith - samt 'path'
zero - s,ifr 'empty'